NOTE: This provision of law was included in the Unconstitutional Statutes
Biennial Report to the Legislature, dated March 14, 2016.
§48. Presumption of malice
Where a non-privileged defamatory publication or expression is false
it is presumed to be malicious unless a justifiable motive for making it is
Where such a publication or expression is true, actual malice must be
proved in order to convict the offender.